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Santo Tomas Internment Camp (Read 36358 times)
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Santo Tomas Internment Camp
May 22nd, 2004, 11:17pm
 
As a spin-off from the message board comments concerning Capt. Cabangbang, questions have been raised about deaths of inmates at the Santo Tomas Internment Camp at Santo Tomas University in Manila.  The Japanese interned nearly 4,000 civilians and several score American military nurses  on the grounds of this historic walled university, established in 1611 by the Spanish.  Editor

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I read the post in the Phil Scouts page, and below my comments, there was an editor's note which read that "3 groups of male internees were executed at various times."  Tell me more about that, as I have only read (or heard of) a few military men, who were in Santo Tomas, pretending to be civilians, who were taken to Ft.Santiago, once their identities were revealed.  I don't believe  there were any executions inside Santo Tomas.

Fred Baldassarre  fbaldie@pacbell.net
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Re: Santo Tomas Internment Camp
Reply #1 - May 22nd, 2004, 11:19pm
 
Fred, as far as I’m aware, no prisoners were actually executed in Santo Tomas.  Various sources cite either three or four groups as being taken away and executed.  The first group, which is the most widely cited case, consisted of two Brits and an Aussie who were caught after escaping, badly beaten in Santo Tomas, then taken to the Chinese cemetery where they were forced to dig their own graves, then were shot.*  

The group of military men pretending to be civilians, which you mention, is another such group.***  

There also is a report of mistaken identity, when three men were taken away to Fort Abad and executed. One of these men unfortunately had the same name as a newspaperman who had offended the Japanese.*  

The final report—for which I’m unable to find a citation--claims that, towards the end of the Japanese occupation of Manila, some of the camp governing  committee were taken away and killed.

The Japanese artillery did kill a number of internees at Santo Tomas shortly after their liberation.  According to Connaughton, Pimlott & Anderson, 22 were killed and 39 wounded* on the day General MacArthur visited the camp.**

* “The Battle for Manila” by Connaughton, Pimlott & Anderson, pp. 42 and 98.

**  “We Band of Angels” by Elizabeth Norman, p. 209 lists the number killed as 10.

*** According to “Prisoners of Santo Tomas” by Celia Lucas, p. 69, 36 men were removed to Fort Santiago when betrayed by a fellow internee.  They were not seen again at were assumed to have been executed.

Thanks for your comments.  Mike Houlahan, Newsletter Editor
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Re: Santo Tomas Internment Camp
Reply #2 - May 22nd, 2004, 11:20pm
 
I know no prisoners were executed in Santo Tomas.   The commandant of Santo Tomas (for most of the time) was QM, who spoke english and got along very well with the internees and treated them very well.  He was a pitcher in the Santo Tomas Softball League.

The three cases that you cited, I can surely understand, as the Kempe Tai must have gotten involved and they were not nice guys.  The Kempe Tais had nothing to do with the running of Santo Tomas, as that was strictly for the Jap QMs, under Gen. Shiyoku Koh.  The Kempe Tai, in Manila, under the command of Col. Nakahama (or Nagahama), were a brutal and barbaric bunch.  For the most part, the Kempe Tai did not bother with Santo Tomas.

Taking people to the Chinese Cemetary was one of the Kempe Tai's favorite tricks.   It was in that same cemetary where they killed Col. Thorpe, the Provost Marshal, from Ft. Stotsenberg, who was the father of the Philippine Guerrilla movement (at least in Luzon, unless you want to count the HUKs), and Joe Barker, the Captain from the 26th CAV, who walked around Manila dressed as a Priest.   They also killed Col. Moses
and the other Scout Colonel, whose name escapes me right now, in that cemetary.

There were over 20 killed when they were caught in the cross fire between US and Jap Artillery fire, on Feb. 7.

Fred
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Re: Santo Tomas Internment Camp
Reply #3 - May 23rd, 2004, 4:08am
 
Updated 7.19.2006

These are the ten (10) Santo Tomas internees executed by the Japanese between 1942-1945.

Executed by the Japanese on February 15, 1942
John C. Cowper, American age 65
Tomas H. Fletcher, British age 29
Blakey B. Leacock, British age 25
Henry E. Weeks, and British age 28

Executed by the Japanese in January, unknown date, 1945
Alfred F. Duggleby, American age 52
Carroll C. Grinnell, American age 47
Pat Hell, American age 39
Ernest E. Johnson, American age 62
G. L. Lewis, American age 28
Clifford Larsen, American age 35

source: "STIC-tistics" from J.E. McCall's 1946 book
Santo Tomas Internment Camp STIC in Verse and ReVerse STICtoons and STICtistics
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« Last Edit: Jul 19th, 2006, 10:11am by Rainbow Trout  aka Sue »  
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Re: Santo Tomas Internment Camp
Reply #4 - May 23rd, 2004, 9:29am
 
Below is what I found on the men executed from Santo Tomas.

These men went over the wall on Feb 12, 1942. They were  Austrailian - Blakely Borthwick  Laycock - Henry Edward Weeks and Thomas Henry Fletcher.

They were tried by military court martial and sentenced to death, for the penalty for escape is death by shooting.

The Executive Committee on behalf of the prisoners begged for reconsideration of such a sentence.

At 11 am on Sunday Feb 15th Earl Carrol, Chairman of the Committee, CE Stewart and RH pedder, a British clergymean Rev Griffiths, together with interpreter, Mr Stanley were ordered to town to the Manila South Police Station where the prisoners were held. The Commandant and other officers of note read the sentencing according to Japanese Military Law. The Rev spoke to the men and they were escorted  to the Manila North Cemetery with entourage.

They were excorted to the awaiting graves dug by Jap soldiers, blind folded and made to sit aqt the edge of the graves, legs dangling.Three Jap soldiers with guns stood in front of the men and shot each man till they fell in the grave , then continued shooting them while in the grave. The witnesses counted 13 shots. The REV then read a burial prayer while the Jap soldiers stood in salute. Several Jap guards then layed sprays of bouganvilla on the graves and walked away.

These are the men who were taken away from STIC on Jan 5. CC Grinnell, AF Duggleby, CL Larsen and EE Johnson......

On Feb 21 - after our liberation , these men were found buried in a common grave by the liberating forces near Harrison Park.

Fred Baldassarre
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Re: Santo Tomas Internment Camp
Reply #5 - May 23rd, 2004, 1:25pm
 
As Sue Trout points out, in August, 1945 a fascinating ten-article series captioned The Secret War of Santo Tomas and written by internee Earl Carroll ran in the Los Angeles Examiner.  It sheds further light on some of the above entries.

Apparently the four internees executed sometime after January 5, 1945 (5th Reply) and the camp leaders who were executed (1st Reply) refer to the same group.

A.F. “Dug” Duggleby, a Californian mining executive, 55,  and Carroll C. Grinnell of Albany County, NY, and the General Electric Company, were both on the camp Executive Committee, Grinnell as Chairman.  Ernest E. Johnson, 60, from Washington, D.C. was a U.S. Maritime Commission representative in Manila.  All three were involved in various ways with smuggling food and medicine into the camp and to the military POWs at Cabanatuan.  The fourth person, Clifton Larsen from Los Angeles, was a young engineer thought not to be involved with any "illegal" activity and probably was arrested in a case of mistaken identity.  (As the 1st Reply also refers to an instance where three were executed, one a case of mistaken identity, perhaps there were three different discriptions of the same group's demise.)

The four were arrested in late December 1944 after the arrest of Mrs. J.D. Mencarini, an Italian nurse who was a major camp contact with the underground outside of Santo Tomas.  She was tortured and executed, but apparently gave up the names of Duggleby, Grinnell and Johnson before dying.

Sadly the four were taken away and executed only days before Santo Tomas was liberated by a flying column of American troops.  MH
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« Last Edit: May 23rd, 2004, 3:53pm by Editor-at-Large »  

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Re: Santo Tomas Internment Camp
Reply #6 - May 25th, 2004, 6:51pm
 
Having been involved in research connected with STIC I have been reading with interesr the correspondance about the executions of people interned there. According to my records the 1942 executions are stated as those of Laycock, Fletcher and Weeks. The 1945 ones, including members of the Camp Committee, are mentioned as Grinnell, Duggelby, Johnson & Larsen.

I live in Worcester, England and my research centres around the life of the man who witnessed the 1942 executions ERNEST STANLEY, the camp intrepreter, and a negiotator of the 1945 hostage release. If anyone has any recollations etc  about him please email me.

Kind Regards Maurice Francis
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Re: Santo Tomas Internment Camp
Reply #7 - Jul 15th, 2004, 4:14pm
 
The following was contributed by former Scout and PSHS member Aniceto Bagley.  Editor
Regarding the liberation of Santo Tomas, the 44th Tank Battalion that spearheaded that rescue column has an annual reunion.
Contact Mark Hunter, enhunter@charter.net.

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Re: Santo Tomas Internment Camp
Reply #8 - Jul 15th, 2004, 6:04pm
 
((((HUG))))  
Thank you, this is great news  and I am passing it on to three other post-war offspring of STIC  internees.
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Re: Santo Tomas Internment Camp & R for A in P
Reply #9 - Jul 16th, 2004, 6:12am
 
Does anyone have access to the letters by Relief for Americans in Philippines?  RAP was at 101 Park Avenue, New York, 17, NY . phone was MUrray Hill 5-8483.  I have # 20 dealing with Santo Tomas, Los Bano, and Camp Homes, dated December 1943; it paints a rosie picture.

I also have an undated, clipping (after February 22, 1945)  from a RAP letter that mentions the executions of Mr Carroll Grinnell, Mr A.F. Duggleby, Mr E.E. Johnson, Mr Clifford Larsen,  Mrs Blanche Jurika, Mrs Mary Stagg, Dr Hawthorne Darby and "a few others still unidentidied." ... killed, away from camp.

"The full story of the five brave women, two of whom are still unidentified, who also perished is not completely known, ..."  This clip speaks of the "the cruel rigors" ...

Can anyone tell me about the five women and what they did? I can only imagine that they did something quite extraordinary - that they were heroes in their own right who "aroused the enmity of the Japanese to the point of committing this dastardly act."








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Re: Santo Tomas Internment Camp
Reply #10 - Jul 16th, 2004, 6:19am
 
I have been told of accounts of the Japanese having big guns turned in toward STIC shortly (unspecified time-line) before liberation.
I thought I also read this in a newspaper clipping my grandmother kept, but I have not located it.
Is this story verified any place?
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Re: Santo Tomas Internment Camp
Reply #11 - Aug 26th, 2004, 5:09pm
 
   A year ago, I spent some time on Corregidor Island. Once I returned to the U.S.A., I followed-up a story regarding a military officer who escaped from Bataan, and Corregidor, and was eventually captured, but was repatriated as a civilian to the United States.  I was curious, and discovered this individual to be a B-17 navigator named Lt. Edgar D. Whitcomb (He would later become the 43 rd Governor for the state of Indiana). Whitcomb endured interrogation at Fort Santiago and convinced the Japanese he was a civilian mining employee. He was confined at Santo Tomas and later transferred to Shanghai, China, where he was repatriated as a "civilian" to the United States. Whitcomb actually flew again in the Philippines towards the end of the war. In his book, "Escape from Corregidor," Whitcomb wrote it was common knowlege that American military people were in the civilian camp at Santo Tomas.  One day, "a truck hauled away twenty- five soldiers and Marines." Whitcomb was uncertain of their fate.

As these 25--by some accounts up to 40--former soldiers were never seen again, they were assumed to have been executed.  Editor    

  The camp informer according to Edgar Whitcomb's book, "Escape From Corregidor," page 201, was actually a soldier claiming to be a civilian. This individual was angry because the prisoners  American-British Committee ordered him to stop renting out a small area to inmates seeking temporary privacy. The informer was taken away along with other members of the military.

Hollis

The "temporary privacy" was for a small group of younger women who turned to prostitution in order to earn funds to purchase extra food.  Some accounts claim the accused informer remained in the camp until liberation.  Editor
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Re: Santo Tomas Internment Camp
Reply #12 - Aug 27th, 2004, 4:35am
 
The Seattle Asian Art Museum has a physical record of the military units which were at Santo Tomas. The record is in a document/collection my mother, Lt. Frankie Lewey, made while at Santo Tomas.

http://www.seattleartmuseum.org/visit/visitSAAM.asp

Seattle Asian Art Museum,
Volunteer Park
1400 East Prospect Street
Seattle, WA 98112-3303
(206) 654-3100

I have emailed the Seattle Asian Art Museum requesting they locate the Lt. Frankie Lewey - Santo Tomas Document and make an appointment for me to show it to my adult children. I also asked to take detailed photographs of it.  

History:
Frankie Lewey was one of the Army nurses held POW at Santo Tomas. She created an historic document while at Santo Tomas that was a fabric scroll (tied with a shoe lace) which contained a huge number of unit insignia pins of people interned at Santo Tomas. She swapped and traded things and other pins to create this historic record that documented the  military units at Santo Tomas. I think she may have had some Japanese pins on it, too.

Frankie gave her historic collection to the director of the Seattle Asian Art Museum about 35+ years ago. These pins were given to SAAM with the agreement they would be placed on public display at the museum. A year or two passed and the pins had not been placed on public display; Frankie and I went back to SAAM to request the return of her pins.

SAAM staff refused to allow her to meet with the director, instead they had us meet with  a man I believe was an assistant director. The assistant director refused to return her pins. She asked when the museum would exhibit her collection and he stated there was no interest in WWII collections. Then he said there was no interest in HER collection; that was re-emphasized when he followed up with a statement that there was no interest in HER pins in specific, because the collection was made by a WOMAN and the public was not interested in anything which came from/or was made by a woman. Frankie again stated she wanted her collection of pins to be placed on display at the museum, as was the original agreement with the director. The assistant director stated he would fulfill the public display agreement by placing her ((worthless, World War II))collection of the  ((worthless)) military insignia ((from the worthless history of Santo Tomas Internment Camp)) in the touring display of museum properties which the docents took from elementary school to elementary school in Seattle area for the school children to handle.


"The Soap Box"
Giving those pins to the Seattle Asian Art Museum was kin to opening Pandora’s box. The assistant director accomplished what the Japanese had been unable to do to Frankie in 33 months as a prisoner of war; he took hope away from my mother. We departed and Frankie never returned to her favorite museum; she died in 1987, her historic record was “gone with the wind.”  
And Hope alone remained locked inside the box.
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Re: Santo Tomas Internment Camp
Reply #13 - Sep 2nd, 2004, 6:46pm
 
The Seattle Asian Art Museum (SAAM)  has two curatorial staff members searching for Lt. Frankie Lewey's insignia pin collection of Santo Tomas Internees.

Search Update May 22, 2005
The head curator of another museum said museums of the past did not keep good records and SAAM may have traded the Santo Tomas pins, or sold the set, or broken the set by removing pins, or  lost/ruined them  in the school docent program.  

This curator also gave me the name of a museum curator in the region - said the pins may have very well have been placed as unwanted/unknown museum holdings with the State - and to ask this "new" curator. ...

If this teaches anything, it is beware of giving donations to museums.
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Re: Santo Tomas Internment Camp
Reply #14 - May 22nd, 2005, 8:23am
 
First hand accounts are priceless for history-nuts like us, this beautiful gem was sent to me by the grandaughter of the man giving this account of life at Santo Tomas.... Earl Henry Hornbostel's Audio Interview.

http://www.spinelectronics.com/ehh/
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Re: Santo Tomas Internment Camp
Reply #15 - May 22nd, 2005, 11:22pm
 
Thank you, I am downloading them as I write this. Smiley
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Re: Santo Tomas Internment Camp & R for A in P
Reply #16 - Jul 3rd, 2005, 10:47pm
 
Hi!  I know about Dr. Darby and Rev. Mary Stagg.  I also know of Ms. Helen Wilk.  Those 3 were executed by the Japanese along with Blanche Jurika and others at the North Cemetery in Manila on Aug 28, 1944.  They were incarcerated in Ft. Santiago in January 1944.  They were tortured before they were killed.  These I know that Dr. Darby, Rev. Stagg and Miss Wilk were helping the underground with all kinds of assistance, from giving money, food, medicines, treatment, and shelter.  They were arrested because a Filipino spy who was able to get their trust and join them, reported them to the Japanese.  They were extraordinary women, all missionaries.  Dr. Darby and Ms. Wilk were running the Immanuel Cooperative Hospital in Manila.  Rev. Stagg was the minister at Cosmopolitan Church in Manila.  

I would like to hear from you of what you are interested in about them.  I also would be interested in your source as I am collecting stories about them, too.

Rainbow Trout  aka Sue wrote on Jul 16th, 2004, 6:12am:
Does anyone have access to the letters by Relief for Americans in Philippines?  RAP was at 101 Park Avenue, New York, 17, NY . phone was MUrray Hill 5-8483.  I have # 20 dealing with Santo Tomas, Los Bano, and Camp Homes, dated December 1943; it paints a rosie picture.

I also have an undated, clipping (after February 22, 1945)  from a RAP letter that mentions the executions of Mr Carroll Grinnell, Mr A.F. Duggleby, Mr E.E. Johnson, Mr Clifford Larsen,  Mrs Blanche Jurika, Mrs Mary Stagg, Dr Hawthorne Darby and "a few others still unidentidied." ... killed, away from camp.

"The full story of the five brave women, two of whom are still unidentified, who also perished is not completely known, ..."  This clip speaks of the "the cruel rigors" ...

Can anyone tell me about the five women and what they did? I can only imagine that they did something quite extraordinary - that they were heroes in their own right who "aroused the enmity of the Japanese to the point of committing this dastardly act."









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Re: Santo Tomas Internment Camp
Reply #17 - Apr 5th, 2006, 4:01pm
 
UPDATED 7.19.2006 Wednesday

I have received a few emails asking for information about Dr.Hawthorne Darby, and the location her final resting place.

The remains of Dr. Hawthorne Darby, Rev. Mary Boyd Stagg, and Miss Helen Wilk are interred behind a special marker in the Cosmopolitan Church, Manila.

I have a little of her genealogy that I think is accurate and  will share it with anyone who is interested.

Sources include Peter (and perhaps) Louis, grandsons of Blanche Walker Jurika.
Go Puan Seng, also known as Jimmy Go and Dr. James Puan Seng, has several books and I am using these two:
"The Hour Had Come: How Faith Brought us Through Peril"  and "Exile."
Not My Will, the biography of  Rev Mary Boyd Stagg written by her daughter, Mary Webb. ISBN 971-27-0560-9
Census records
Newspaper archives
Internet searches
Clippings saved by my grandmother
and Yahoo answers - someone answered my question -where Hawthorne Darby was interred.

NARA lists Hawthorne Darby - interned at Santo Tomas.
All of  the books I have do not list her as being at STIC. I find her at Fort Santiago. After Mary Stagg's execution, I find her son, Sam Boyd Stagg, in Santo Tomas.
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Re: Santo Tomas Internment Camp
Reply #18 - Dec 22nd, 2006, 7:37pm
 
I'm writing a book about people from my home state of Indiana who were POWs during the war.  One, a nurse from South Bend, IN was interned at Santo Tomas.  I've read several interested accounts about a mysterious guy named ERNEST STANLEY, but cannot find out anything about what happened to him after the liberation.  If anybody knows about him, please provide additional information.  Thanks.
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Re: Santo Tomas Internment Camp
Reply #19 - Dec 23rd, 2006, 9:52pm
 
D.D., is it you asking this question??
Drop Maurice Francis a line at
mauricefrancis1 @ hotmail.com - & eliminate the spaces before and after the @.
In a nutshell:  Stanley went to Japan (I think I recall reading that the 1st Cav Div requested him.
He was granted Japanese citizenship (Rare!)
Married a Japanese lady,
had one step son.
He is deceased.
Some believe he was an agent of the British.  
I believe Ernest Stanley was a dedicated missionary, like many of the time, who tried to live his life by his understanding of  G_d's will (faith toward G _d,  being #1, and St Paul's "faith without works, is dead," reminding him that he had work to be done.  His station in life at STIC  was created and  exploited by the Japanese to cause dissention amongst the internees for the purpose of dividing Stanley from the people, and for contention.
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